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​This work is licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 for open use for any and all non-commercial purposes.

We encourage educators and groups to use this guide in a way that works for you!

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Learn more about Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0



Our Team

This guide was designed by Aditi Nair, Aubrey Murdock, Jacqueline Castañeda, Molly Rose Kaufman, and Tim Nottage in collaboration with Azalea Vaseghi, Dominic T. Moulden, Douglas Farrand, Gahlia Eden, Mindy Thompson Fullilove, Octavia Driscoll, Ricky Tucker, and Robert Sember. 

This project was produced by University of Orange Media and Urbanism Department. The University of Orange is a community organization and free people’s urbanism school that builds collective capacity for people to create more equitable cities. 


400 Years of Inequality

The 400 Years of Inequality project was led by a coalition of organizations and individuals dedicated to dismantling structural inequality and building strong, healthy communities. See a full list of organizers, advisors, and partner organizations here


Across the nation, diverse organizations, institutions, collectives, and groups of neighbors answered the 400 Years of Inequality call to observe 2019 as the 400th anniversary of African Peoples being brought to Jamestown in bondage.  Each of these groups asked “what is ours to do?” and hosted an observance that spoke to the history of their place and their community’s dreams for the future.  We want to thank every group that chose to host an observance.  You can read more about each of these observances on the 400 Years of Inequality website

Chapter Credits

Contemplating 400 Years: Seven Generations Meditation

The meditation featuring Dr. Angel Acosta and Dr. Margaux Simmons was recorded and engineered by Assaf Gidron with support from Douglas Farrand.  


1. 400 Years of Inequality Timeline

The 400 Years Timeline was created through the research of students in the 400 Years of Inequality class at The New School, taught by Dr. Mindy Thompson Fullilove, in Spring and Fall of 2017: Rawan Albaghli, Bailey Baerwolf, Lisa Banfield, Heather Beck, Divya Bhardwaj, Sherian Feaster Rumbidzai Joyline Gostosa Alfred Hutchinson Gabriel Kissoon, Taylor Morton, Evelyn Ontaneda, Amu Ptah-Riojas, Zion Sage, Gamal Walker, Shahad Ibrahim O Almubarak, Katherine Dillard Gonzalez, Octavia Driscoll, Monae Evans, Nicola Roxann Hutchinson Scott, Mana Jhaveri, Metehan Karakaya, Ana Reichenbach, Mylanie Sanchez, and John Steele. Design by Paul Beasley and Tim Nottage.


2. Reverend Barber’s Seven Sins of Inequality in the U.S.

Stolen Hands, Stolen Lands: From 1619 to a Just Future was produced by the 400 Years of Inequality National Organizing Committee, Union Theological Seminary, and The Riverside Church. More about the event and a description of the program can be found here.

The Stolen Hands, Stolen Lands: A People’s Observance for a Just Future booklet was created by Aditi Nair, Robert Sember, and Tim Nottage.


3. Finding What We’re FOR & Fighting for What We Love

Finding What We’re FOR & Fighting for What We Love is an exhibit featuring the photographs of Dominic T. Moulden.  Moulden was the University of Orange 2019-2020 Ernest Thompson Fellow for Program and Coalition.


The Finding What We’re FOR activity was developed and adapted for different audiences by Aubrey Murdock, Dominic T. Moulden, and Molly Rose Kaufman.


4. Moral Fusion Coalition is Collective Recovery

The Collective Recovery framework was developed by the Cities Research Group. Cities Research Group Collective Recovery work is currently housed at the University of Orange Collective Recovery Committee.

Meditative Interlude Video Credits

Organizations, institutions, collectives, and groups of neighbors hosted over 150 observances in 2019.  We want to thank every group that chose to host an observance.  You can read more about these observances on our response (link) page.


Between each section of this guide, there is a video interlude that features a place-based observance hosted in 2019.  You will find information about each observance and its documentation below.  Additional audio work by Dr. Margaux Simmons and Douglas Farrand.

Video 1

Believe the Hype: A Global Collective of Industry Change Agents


National Organization of Minority Architects (NOMA), New York chapter; BLACKSPACE NYC; New York Coalition of Black Architects


Weeksville Heritage Center, Brooklyn, New York / October 16, 2019 


Featured: Observance Organizers & Students from Mott Hall Bridges Academy (MHBA)


Cinematography: Carlos Neira & Chuck Astuto

Video 2

Slave Rebellion Reenactment 

Community-engaged artist performance envisioned and organized by artist Dread Scott.

From the River Parishes to Congo Square, New Orleans, Louisiana / November 8-9, 2019

Featured: Reenactors in period specific clothing

Cinematography: Charlie Steiner

Video 3

Inwood Candlelight Vigil 

Organized in partnership by the Upper Manhattan Interfaith Leaders Coalition; The Justice, Peace & Integrity of Creation Ministry of Church of the Good Shepherd; Nadema Agard Red Earth Studio C/P; Regiven Environmental Project    


Inwood neighborhood of Manhattan, New York / October 17, 2019

Featured: Organizers leading community members from Inwood Park to an unmarked burial site discovered in their neighborhood

Cinematography: Miguel Garzón Martínez 

Video 4 

The Cotton Series 

Created by Havanna Fisher. Produced in partnership with The New School Centennial Committee and the 400 Years of Inequality National Organizing Committee

The New School, Manhattan, New York / October 4, 2019

Featured: Choreography by Havanna Fisher; performances by Havanna Fisher, Diana Uribe, Isabella Jackson, Jean Wakati, Marianna Noguera-Devers & Na’ilah Harris 

Footage: Documentation by Dakoit Pictures under the direction of The New School


With music from 1619 - 2019 Remembering Rosa: A Concert for Peace

Performance by Orange’s Intergenerational Community Choir. Organized by University of Orange

Rosa Parks Central Community School, Orange, New Jersey / December 5, 2019

Our team would like to thank these funders for making this guide possible:


with additional support from

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